A short introduction - Ingredients to run an EPR experiment







Ingredients required to run an EPR experiment are: a paramagnetic centre, a microwave cavity, a magnetic field, a microwave radiation (and a temperature controller).



Paramagnetic centres can be found naturally anywhere. Some examples of paramagnetic centres are: free radicals, metal centres in proteins, and in organometallics, defects in materials, paramagnetic centres in semiconductors and electrons in metals.

If not naturally present, there are some possibilities of introducing a paramagnetic centre on purpose. Here is a list of systems normally studied by EPR after introduction of a paramagnetic centres in the systems.


Systems with paramagnetic centres
introduced on purpose that can be studied by EPR; in parenthesis the method of paramagnetism generation




Condensed phases: liquid, crystalline or liquid crystalline
(dissolution of stable radicals or its generation by chemical or electrochemical methods)

(spin labelling, metal exchange)

(spin labelling)


(use of ionizing radiations: ions/electrons/gamma, X and UV-rays , inclusion or exchange of paramagnetic molecules, chemical reduction or oxidation)

 Photoexcited molecules in solution and in solid phase
(UV irradiation)

 Transient radicals produced by irradiation
(radical production by UV irradiation


Additional information